He became a priest in the retinue of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V (1447–55), Bishop of Savona under Pope Paul II, and with the support of Cardinal Giuliano Della Rovere. Defeated by his brother's armies, Cem sought protection from the Knights of St. John in Rhodes. It is also worth mentioning that Innocent VIII battled with unsuccessful insistence to promote a great crusade. They were executed in large numbers. [24], Innocent had two illegitimate children born before he entered the clergy[6] "towards whom his nepotism had been as lavish as it was shameless". In December 1688, Innocent received the diplomatic mission sent to the Vatican by Narai, the King of Siam. Christopher Columbus and the betrayed Pope) is convinced of this after having studied Columbus's papers for over 25 years. Prince Cem offered perpetual peace between the Ottoman Empire and Christendom. Mindful of the origin of his success, Innocent IX supported, during his two months' pontificate, the cause of Philip II and the Catholic League against Henry IV of France (r. 1589–1610) in the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598), where a papal army was in the field. After his death. "For the glory of God", Rodney Stark, p. 330, Princeton University Press, 2003, Valori, quoted in Pirie, The Triple Crown, Spring 1935, p.29, The Life of Girolamo Savonarola (1959) by Roberto Ridolfi, "Sede Vacante August 12, 1484 – August 29, 1484", California State University, Northridge, "Haiti, i dubbi sul ritrovamento della Santa Maria di Colombo (Doubts over the finding of the Santa Maria of Colombo)", "The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture – Paperback – David Brion Davis – Oxford University Press", Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pope_Innocent_VIII&oldid=997089871, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles needing POV-check from November 2020, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2019, Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 23:33. In 1487, Innocent confirmed Tomas de Torquemada as Grand Inquisitor of Spain. [8] Cem died in Capua on 25 February 1495 on a military expedition under the command of King Charles VIII of France to conquer Naples. In order to prevent the election of the Venetian Cardinal Barbo, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, on the evening before the election, after the cardinals had retired for the night, the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, nephew of the late Pope, and Cardinal Borgia, the Vice-Chancellor, visited a number of cardinals and secured their votes with the promise of various benefices. 1455) and his wife Teodorina de Mari (c. In memory of Innocent III, to whose lineage he belonged, he chose the name of Innocent XIII. [8] Cem died in Capua on 25 February 1495 on a military expedition under the command of King Charles VIII of France to conquer Naples. Also in 1487, Innocent issued a bull[13] denouncing the views of the Waldensians (Vaudois), offering plenary indulgence to all who should engage in a Crusade against them. While in Naples he was appointed a Canon of the Cathedral of Capua, and was given the Priory of S. Maria d'Arba in Genoa. His daughter Teodorina Cybo married Gerardo Usodimare and had a daughter. He is to date the last pope to take the pontifical name of "Alexander" upon his election to the papacy. Cem's presence in Rome was useful because whenever Bayezid intended to launch a military campaign against the Christian nations of the Balkans, the Pope would threaten to release his brother. Using his influence to provide for […] Cardinal della Rovere then met with Borgia, who disliked Barbo and wished to block his election, with an offer to turn their votes over to Cibò, promising them benefits for doing so.[7]. Some scholars view the bull as "clearly political", motivated by jurisdictional disputes between the local German Catholic priests and clerics from the Office of the Inquisition who answered more directly to the pope. In March 1489, Cem, the captive brother of Bayezid II, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, came into Innocent's custody. Innocent VIII, Pope Innocent VIII, Pope (1432–1492; r. 1484–1492) Giovanni Batista Cibo, elected pope in 1484, issued what has been termed one of the most important documents in the history of the Church’s fight against witchcraft: the Bull of 1484, Summis desiderantes affectibus (“Desiring with supreme ardor”). In 1467, he was made Bishop of Savona by Pope Paul II, but exchanged this see in 1472 for that of Molfetta in south-eastern Italy. What happened between then and his death on the 25th of that July is unknown, although Anti Semites accused his physician Giacomo di San Genesio of having performed a pseudo blood transfusion that contributed to his death [20][21][22][23]. Cats are the #1 rat predators. (Innocent III, DS 795/425) Pope Paul III, 1534-1549. Some scholars view the bull as "clearly political", motivated by jurisdictional disputes between the local German Catholic priests and clerics from the Office of the Inquisition who answered more directly to the pope. Kramer would later claim that witchcraft was to blame for bad weather. The noted Franciscan theologian Angelo Carletti di Chivasso, whom Innocent in 1491 appointed as Apostolic Nuncio and Commissary, conjointly with the Bishop of Mauriana, was involved in reaching the peaceful agreement between Catholics and Waldensians. Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo) was born in Genoa of Greek ancestry,[1][2][3][4] the son of Arano Cybo or Cibo (c. 1375–c. Pope Innocent XIII (Latin: Innocentius Tertius Decimus; 13 May 1655 – 7 March 1724), born Michelangelo Conti, was an Italian cleric of the Roman Catholic Church and the 245th Pope from 1721 until his death.. Michelangelo Conti was born in Poli, near Rome.. Conti was born into a family that which included several popes including Pope Innocent III. [7], It was claimed that Cardinal della Rovere met secretly with Cardinal Marco Barbo in order to secure him more votes to become pope if he was promised a residence, though Barbo refused in fear it would make the conclave invalid due to simony. [16] In the case of Innocent he permitted trade with Barbary merchants in which foodstuffs would be given in exchange for slaves who could then be converted to Christianity. By July 1492, Innocent had become very skinny. In a fairly unimpressive papacy, the elderly pope became the first pontiff to publicly announce that he fathered illegitimate children. A protracted conflict with King Ferdinand I of Naples was the principal obstacle. 1380–? Rats were the ones that spread the bubonic plague aka black death. [25] In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo (d. 1519) to Maddalena de' Medici (1473–1528), the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X. The 1492 papal conclave (6–11 August) was convened after the death of Pope Innocent VIII (25 July 1492). Pope Innocent VIII (1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. After intense politicking by Della Rovere, Cibo was elected pope in 1484. He was quickly ordained as a priest and the next day consecrated Innocent III. Arano Cybo was viceroy of Naples and then a senator in Rome under Pope Calixtus III (1455–58). It was the first papal conclave to be held in the Sistine Chapel. Yale University Press. 13. The letter of Innocent VIII is not an approval of the book to which it was appended, but rather a charge to inquisitors to investigate diabolical sorcery and a warning to those who might impede them in their duty, that is, a papal letter in the by then conventional tradition established by John XXII and other popes through Eugenius IV and Nicholas V (1447–55).[12]. Pope Innocent VIII : biography 1432 – 25 July 1492 In Rome he built for summer use the Belvedere of the Vatican, on an unarticulated slope above the Vatican Palace, which his successor would turn into the Cortile del Belvedere. The pope died in Perugia less than a year after the council ended. In 1650, he was made Bishop of Novara. Innocent excommunicated Ferdinand in 1489 and invited King Charles VIII of France to come to Italy with an army and take possession of the Kingdom of Naples, a disastrous political event for the Italian peninsula as a whole. King Ferdinand I of Naples had supported Cybo's competitor, Rodrigo Borgia. Pope … His tomb at St. Peter's Basilica was sculpted by Filippo della Valle. Kramer would later claim that witchcraft was to blame for bad weather. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. [11], Nonetheless, the bull failed to ensure that Kramer obtained the support he had hoped for, causing him to retire and to compile his views on witchcraft into his book Malleus Maleficarum, which was published in 1487. In season, he hunted at Castello della Magliana, which he enlarged. Sultan Bayezid sent a messenger to France and requested Cem to be kept there; he agreed to make an annual payment in gold for his brother's expenses. In March 1489, Cem, the captive brother of Bayezid II, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, came into Innocent's custody. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. The Italian journalist and writer Ruggero Marino, in his book Cristoforo Colombo e il Papa tradito (transl. [11], Nonetheless, the bull failed to ensure that Kramer obtained the support he had hoped for, causing him to retire and to compile his views on witchcraft into his book Malleus Maleficarum, which was published in 1487. In 1473, with the support of Giuliano Della Rovere, later Pope Julius II, he was made cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded on 29 August 1484 as Pope Innocent VIII. "Witchcraft in Spain: The Testimony of Martín de Castañega's Treatise on Superstition and Witchcraft (1529)". Pope Innocent VIII(Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo(or Cibo), was head of the Catholic Churchand ruler of the Papal Statesfrom 29 August 1484 to his death. A mysterious inscription on his tomb in Saint Peter in Rome states: “Nel tempo del suo Pontificato, la gloria della scoperta di un nuovo mondo” (transl. Pope, the title, since about the 9th century, of the bishop of Rome, the head of the Roman Catholic Church. His successor would later turn the building into the Cortile del Belvedere. Innocent VIII named eight cardinals in one consistory which was held on 9 March 1489; the pope named three of those cardinals in pectore (one of whom being a successor in Giovanni de' Medici who became Pope Leo X) with two of them having their names released after the pope died to ensure that they could vote in the 1492 conclave. Innocent VIII had lots of illegitimate children. His rule was contested by his brother Cem, who sought the support of the Mamluks of Egypt. Innocent VIII died on 25 July 1492 leaving behind him two illegitimate children born before he entered the clergy “towards whom his nepotism had been as lavish as it was shameless” In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo (d. 1519) to Maddalena de’ Medici (1473–1528), the daughter of Lorenzo de’ Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal’s hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X. Defeated by his brother's armies, Cem sought protection from the Knights of St. John in Rhodes. [16], King Ferdinand of Aragon gave Innocent 100 Moorish slaves, who were shared out with favoured Cardinals. Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 August 1484 to his death. Pope Innocent XI raised Pignatelli to the rank of Cardinal in 1682. Pope Innocent VIII Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. Any time the Sultan threatened war against the Christian Balkans, Innocent threatened to release this brother, who later died in a military expedition, fighting for King Charles VIII of France against Naples. [25] In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo (d. 1519) to Maddalena de' Medici (1473–1528), the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X. Bayezid II ruled as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. When Innocent VIII lay dying, his doctors decided that they would try a blood transfusion. Saints & Sinners – A History of the Popes. He then developed a fever. In order to prevent the election of the Venetian Cardinal Barbo, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, on the evening before the election, after the cardinals had retired for the night, the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, nephew of the late Pope, and Cardinal Borgia, the Vice-Chancellor, visited a number of cardinals and secured their votes with the promise of various benefices. Kors, Alan Charles; Peters, Edward (2000). Soon after his succession he invested Emperor Charles VI with the Kingdom of Sicily and received his oath of … [7], It was claimed that Cardinal della Rovere met secretly with Cardinal Marco Barbo in order to secure him more votes to become pope if he was promised a residence, though Barbo refused in fear it would make the conclave invalid due to simony. He is known in Budapest as the "Saviour of Hungary". [15], In Rome, he ordered the Belvedere of the Vatican to be built, intended for summer use, on an unarticulated slope above the Vatican Palace. To Valori, he had become 'an inert mass of flesh, incapable of assimiliating any nourishment but a few drops of milk from a young woman's breast'. [14], In 1486, Innocent VIII was persuaded that at least thirteen of the 900 theses of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola were heretical, and the book containing the theses was interdicted. Very few, if any, cats were around for 400 years. ", Minnich (2005) notes that the attitude of Renaissance popes towards slavery, a common institution in contemporary cultures, varied. Innocent XI, given name Benedetto Odescalchi, Roman Catholic Pope from 1676 to 1689, was born at Como on the 16th of May 1611. Cem's presence in Rome was useful because whenever Bayezid intended to launch a military campaign against the Christian nations of the Balkans, the Pope would threaten to release his brother. His grandnephew was Bindo Altoviti, one of the most influential bankers of his time and patron of the arts, being friends with Raphael and Michelangelo. His rule was contested by his brother Cem, who sought the support of the Mamluks of Egypt. Giovanni Battista's early years were spent at the Neapolitan court. Pope Innocent XI (Latin: Innocentius XI; 16 May 1611 – 12 August 1689), born Benedetto Odescalchi, was Pope from 21 September 1676 to his death on August 12, 1689. Darst, David H. (15 October 1979). The letter of Innocent VIII is not an approval of the book to which it was appended, but rather a charge to inquisitors to investigate diabolical sorcery and a warning to those who might impede them in their duty, that is, a papal letter in the by then conventional tradition established by John XXII and other popes through Eugenius IV and Nicholas V (1447–55).[12]. [16], King Ferdinand of Aragon gave Innocent 100 Moorish slaves, who were shared out with favoured Cardinals. ", Minnich (2005) notes that the attitude of Renaissance popes towards slavery, a common institution in contemporary cultures, varied. Savonarola chastised him[who?] The pope is regarded as the successor of St. Peter and has supreme power of jurisdiction over the Catholic church in matters of faith and morals, as well as in church discipline and government. Innocent died on 27 September 1700 and was succeeded by Pope Clement XI (1700–1721). To Valori, he had become 'an inert mass of flesh, incapable of assimiliating any nourishment but a few drops of milk from a young woman's breast'.[19]. However, the sultan paid the Knights a large amount to keep Cem captive. A protracted conflict with King Ferdinand I of Naples was the principal obstacle. [15], In Rome, he ordered the Belvedere of the Vatican to be built, intended for summer use, on an unarticulated slope above the Vatican Palace. Shortly after his coronation, Innocent VIII addressed a fruitless summons to Christendom to unite in a crusade against the Turks. Pope Innocent III in 1210. Giovanni Battista's early years were spent at the Neapolitan court. Innocent VIII, original name Giovanni Battista Cibo, (born 1432, Genoa—died July 25/26, 1492, Rome), pope from 1484 to 1492. He then developed a fever. To Valori, he had become 'an inert mass of flesh, incapable of assimiliating any nourishment but a few drops of milk from a young woman's breast'.[19]. Witchcraft in Europe, 400–1700: A Documentary History. Cardinal Pignatelli was elected pope on 12 July 1691; and he chose to be called Innocent XII. For more information follow the bold category link. Wikimedia Commons Innocent VII, who became pope in 1484, was the first pontiff to openly acknowledge eight illegitimate children, though he … One of the most influential pontiffs of the Middle Ages, Innocent built the papacy into a more powerful, prestigious institution than it had ever been before. In exchange for maintaining the custody of Cem, Bayezid paid Innocent VIII 120,000 crowns, a relic of the Holy Lance and an annual fee of 45,000 ducats. Without cats, the rat population flourished. Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo) was born in Genoa of Greek ancestry,[1][2][3][4] the son of Arano Cybo or Cibo (c. 1375–c. After being moved the first time in 1606 to the so-called aisle of the Sudarium, the monument to Pope Innocent VIII was placed in its current location in 1621, and arbitrarily recomposed. His daughter Teodorina Cybo married Gerardo Usodimare and had a daughter. After intense politicking by Della Rovere, Cibo was elected pope in 1484. Pope Innocent XI. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). King Ferdinand I of Naples had supported Cybo's competitor, Rodrigo Borgia. The secular power can without mortal sin carry out a sentence of death, provided it proceeds in imposing the penalty not from hatred but with judgment, not carelessly but with due solicitude. The day after Pope Celestine III died, Innocent became one of the youngest men ever selected to sit in Peter's Chair. In March 1489, Cem was transferred to the custody of Innocent VIII. [14], In 1486, Innocent VIII was persuaded that at least thirteen of the 900 theses of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola were heretical, and the book containing the theses was interdicted. In March 1489, Cem was transferred to the custody of Innocent VIII. The following year, Pope Innocent supported the barons in their failed revolt. Cem was later sent to the castle of Pierre d'Aubusson in France. Arano Cybo was viceroy of Naples and then a senator in Rome under Pope Calixtus III (1455–58). [17] The slaves of Innocent were called "moro", meaning "dark-skinned man", in contrast to negro slaves who were called "moro nero".[18]. His successor would later turn the building into the Cortile del Belvedere. [6] The fall of Granada in January 1492, was celebrated in the Vatican and Innocent granted Ferdinand II of Aragon the epithet "Catholic Majesty. Gender: Male Re. Sultan Bayezid sent a messenger to France and requested Cem to be kept there; he agreed to make an annual payment in gold for his brother's expenses. "During his Pontificate, the glory of the discovery of a new world."). 1432 – 25 July 1492 Pope Innocent VIII (; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was the head of the Catholic Church from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. But Innocent left a rich legacy. cf., Joyy et al., Witchcraft and Magic In Europe, p. 239 (2002). The pope named two saints during his pontificate: Catherine of Vadstena (1484) and Leopold III (1485). 1455) and his wife Teodorina de Mari (c. Son of the viceroy of Naples, Battista spent his early years at the Neapolitan court. About Pope Innocent VIII Born at Genoa, 1432; elected 29 August, 1484; died at Rome, 25 July, 1492. While in Naples he was appointed a Canon of the Cathedral of Capua, and was given the Priory of S. Maria d'Arba in Genoa. Viewing his brother as a rival, the Sultan paid the pope not to set him free. On the request of German inquisitor Heinrich Kramer, Innocent VIII issued the papal bull Summis desiderantes (5 December 1484), which supported Kramer's investigations against magicians and witches: The bull was written in response to the request of Dominican Heinrich Kramer for explicit authority to prosecute witchcraft in Germany, after he was refused assistance by the local ecclesiastical authorities,[10] who disputed his authority to work in their dioceses. In 1487, Innocent confirmed Tomas de Torquemada as Grand Inquisitor of Spain. Son of the viceroy of Naples, Battista spent his early years at the Neapolitan court. A mysterious inscription on his tomb in Saint Peter in Rome states: “Nel tempo del suo Pontificato, la gloria della scoperta di un nuovo mondo” (transl. Also in 1487, Innocent issued a bull[13] denouncing the views of the Waldensians (Vaudois), offering plenary indulgence to all who should engage in a Crusade against them. [6], The papal conclave of 1484 was rife with factions, while gangs rioted in the streets. His death, however, prevented the realisation of Innocent IX's schemes. The Italian journalist and writer Ruggero Marino, in his book Cristoforo Colombo e il Papa tradito (transl. for his worldly ambitions.[26]. After Innocent XI in 1689, he was buried in St. Peter's Basilica. Both the papal letter appended to the work and the supposed endorsement of Cologne University for it are problematic. His grandnephew was Bindo Altoviti, one of the most influential bankers of his time and patron of the arts, being friends with Raphael and Michelangelo. In exchange for maintaining the custody of Cem, Bayezid paid Innocent VIII 120,000 crowns, a relic of the Holy Lance and an annual fee of 45,000 ducats. Ferdinand's oppressive government led in 1485 to a rebellion of the aristocracy, known as the Conspiracy of the Barons, which included Francesco Coppola and Antonello Sanseverino of Salerno and was supported by Pope Innocent VIII. He became a priest in the retinue of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V (1447–55), Bishop of Savona under Pope Paul II, and with the support of Cardinal Giuliano Della Rovere. Both the papal letter appended to the work and the supposed endorsement of Cologne University for it are problematic. The fact is that he died seven days before the departure of Christopher Columbus for his supposedly first voyage over the Atlantic, raising speculations that Columbus actually traveled before the known date and re-discovered the Americas for the Europeans before the supposed date of 12 October 1492. In Rome he became a priest in the retinue of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V (1447–55). 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Innocent XI in 1689, he was buried in St. Peter 's Chair 1484 ; died at Rome 25. Cybo was viceroy of Naples, Battista spent his early years at the Neapolitan.. Ordained as a rival, the King of Siam Cardinal Pignatelli was elected Pope unanimously in September,. Rome determined to become the next Pope the son of the youngest men ever selected sit. The son of the viceroy of Naples was the first pontiff to publicly announce that he illegitimate! He is known in Budapest as the `` Saviour of Hungary '' viceroy of and... Clement XI he was elected Pope in a stormy conclave on 8 May, 1721 work the... ) and his wife Teodorina de ' Mari giovanni Battista 's early years at the Neapolitan court the... Is known in Budapest as the `` Saviour of Hungary '' contested by his brother as a,! Della Valle the last Pope to take the pontifical name of Innocent III to...

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