[Delhi 2011] Answer/Explanation. (a) What is the unique property of carbon atom ? (d) The functional group present in ethanol is………. Question 19: (f) What is the general name of the reaction which takes place between X and Y to form Z ? (iii) Z (natural gas). Question 19: Solution : Question 16: Question 34: The difference in the physical properties of diamond and graphite arises because Question 69: (a) What is compound A ? (a) Acetone – CH3COCH3 B is sodium ethanoate, CH3COONa Question 29: Solution : Solution : Another four carbon atoms containing carbon compound reacts with sodium hydrogencarbonate to evolve a gas which turns lime water milky. Solution : (c) Why is soap not suitable for washing clothes when the water is hard ? (d) State another use of allotrope C (other than in glass cutters). Why ? Question 56: Isopentane and neopentane. (a) What happens when carbon burns in air ? Solution : Question 34: A soap molecule has a tadpole like structure shown below: (g) Ethyne has…….. carbon-hydrogen single bonds. Solution : Solution : (b) A mixture of ethyne and air is not used for welding because burning of ethyne in air produces a sooty flame (due to incomplete combustion) which is not hot enough to melt metals for welding. (c) What makes the candle flame yellow and luminous ? (a) Combustion (b) Why are coal and petroleum called fossil fuels ? How many electrons are used to draw the electron-dot structure for ethane, a covalent compound with the formula C2H6? Question 24: Give reason for your observation. Methanoic acid is another member of this homologous series. So, the wax vapours bum in an insufficient supply of oxygen (of air) which leads to incomplete combustion of wax. Alkenes: (c) Explain the formation of scum when hard water is treated with soap. Solution : (ii) Alcohol group ** The shape of methane is tetrahedral and all H-C-H bond angles are 109.5°. You are given the following molecular formulae of some hydrocarbons : (b) B is propene, CH3CH=CH2 How many pentagons of carbon atoms are present in one molecule of buckminsterfullerene ? Common salt is added to precipitate out all the soap from the aqueous solution. Give an example (with equation) of the substitution reaction of, an alkane. (b) Due to its softness, powdered graphite can be used a lubricant whereas diamond being extremely hard can not be used as lubricant. CH4, C3H6, C3H8, C4H6, C5H12, C5H10 Question 20: Solution : Solution 23 (a) A compound made up of hydrogen and carbon only is called a hydrocarbon (Hydrogen + Carbon= Hydrocarbon). Write the name of the compound formed during the chemical reaction. Write its electronic configuration. (ii) X (coal) See the answer. Then add 5 to 10 grams of common salt (sodium chloride). Solution : (i) Take 1 ml of pure ethanol (absolute alcohol) in a test-tube and add 1 ml of glacial ethanoic acid to it. Solution : Name two elements which exhibit the property of catenation. Diamond, Question 11: Question 38: Describe an activity with the help of a labelled diagram of the apparatus used to prove that the evolved gas is the one which you have named. What is the common name of methanol ? Another colourless organic liquid Y of molecular formula C2H60 has no action on any litmus but it is used as a nail polish remover. Butanone is a four-carbon compound with the functional group: What would be the electron dot structure of a molecule of sulphur which is made up of eight atoms of sulphur ? Give the name of each series. Question 14: (a) 20 hexagons (a) Methanoicacid – Formic acid (a) Match the formulae in group A with appropriate names from group B : Alcohol group; Disadvantages of incomplete combustion: Question 11: Chloromethane – CH3Cl and methanol – CH3OH, Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Page No:242, Question 39: Solution : Question 12: (i) 14 u With four single bonds, carbon has a tetrahedral structure, while with one double bond it's structure is trigonal planar, and with a triple bond it has a linear structure. If bubbles (or effervescence) of hydrogen gas are produced, it indicates that the given organic liquid is an alcohol. A soft material Y is also used as a fuel in the form of candles. (a) When ethanol is oxidised with alkaline potassium permanganate (or acidified potassium dichromate), it gets oxidised to form ethanoic acid. Compound D on treatment with NaOH solution gives back B and C. Identify A, B, C and D. Question 35: (b) Use of synthetic detergents causes pollution of water. (e) (i) None (ii) Two (iii) Three (iv) Five, Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Page No:224, Question 60: (a) What is meant by a functional group ? Three organic compounds A, B and C have the following molecular formulae : Draw a simple diagram to show the arrangement of carbon atoms in diamond. An organic acid X is a liquid, Which often freezes during winter time in cold countries, having the molecular formula C2H402. (a) The form of carbon which is known as black lead is…………………….. (b) What is a detergent ? (a) What is diamond ? (ii) Alcohol group: -OH C3H4; C2H6 What is the molecular formula and structural formula of a cyclic hydrocarbon whose one molecule contains 8 hydrogen atoms ? (a) Which compound is most likely to be sweet-smelling ? (b) What change will you observe if you test soap solution with a litmus paper (red and blue) ? (a) Fuels which vaporise on heating, burn with a flame. Solution : Question 37: H2S04. C2H6 This makes the candle flame yellow and luminous. (i) ethyne (ii) ethene (iii) benzene (a) Which functional group do you think can be present in an organic compound having the molecular formula C5H10O2 ? Alcohol group, -OH. (a) Give the general formula of an : (i) alkane (ii) alkene (in) alkyne. (c) Which compound on repeated chlorination forms chloroform ? Name two oxidising agents which can oxidise ethanol to ethanoic acid. Solution : Solution : Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Page No:265. Give the name of each series. Describe one reaction of a carboxylic acid. Name one liquid carbon compound which is being used as an additive in petrol in some countries. (c) Alkene, CnH2n Reaction: (b) What is allotrope A ? Also write the chemical equation of the reaction involved. Ethanoic acid; CH3COOH, Question 16: In allotrope C, each atom of element E is surrounded by four other E atoms to form a rigid structure. (c) What is the advantage of detergents over soaps for washing clothes ? The four surrounding atoms are at the four vertices of a regular tetrahedron. C6H6, C6H10, C6H12, C6H14 (c) Which of the two is better for our health : butter or vegetable oil ? CH3—CH2—Br An organic compound A having the molecular formula C3H8O is a liquid at room temperature. (a) Give the names and structural formulae of the next two higher homologues of methane. A graphite crystal consists of layers of carbon atoms or sheets of carbon atoms. (g) Two (iii) CnH2n-2 Question 60: (a) Sodium metal test: Add a small piece of sodium metal to the organic liquid (to be tested), taken in a dry test tube. (c) Name a chemical reaction which is characteristic of unsaturated hydrocarbons (like alkenes and alkynes). This rigid structure of diamond makes it a very hard substance. (ii) Esters are used as solvents for oils, fats, gums, resins, cellulose, paints, varnishes, etc. Compound X reacts with Y on warming in the presence of cone. C5H10; C6H12, Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Page No:225, Question 65: Question 26: Solution : (d) Give one example of a hydrocarbon, other than pentane, having more than three isomers. (b) Which formula represents benzene ? (b) Give the harmful effects of drinking alcohol. Sodium hydrogencarbonate can be used to distinguish between ethanol and ethanoic acid. A four carbon atoms containing neutral organic compound X reacts with sodium metal to evolve a gas which burns with a ‘pop’ sound. (d) State any two uses of graphite. (a) What is a homologous series ? Solution : Write chemical equation of the reaction involved. (ii) Any two adjacent homologues differ by 1 carbon atom and 2 hydrogen atoms in their molecular formulae. Solution : cyanate, NH4CNO (i) CH3COOH (ii) CH3CH2CHO (iii) C2H5OH (iv) CH3COCH2CH3 (b) Give the common name of (i) ethyne, and (ii) ethene. (i) in terms of molecular mass ? PLAY. (b) Describe the structure of a soap molecule with the help of a diagram. What are the two properties of carbon which lead to the formation of a large number of carbon compounds ? H2S04 at 170°C ? Ethane. 13. Name one detergent. (b) Write three common functional groups present in organic compounds. Write the molecular formula of the following compounds and draw their electron-dot structures : (i) Ethane asked Jul 12, 2018 in Chemistry by Anukriti bharti ( 38.1k points) carbon and its … Question 4: Question 13: Solution : (f) Ethene and ethyne are examples of…………….. hydrocarbons. Group B : Ethanol, Methanol, Ethanal, Ethanoic acid (b) Pentanol, C5H11OH, Question 21: (a) HCOOH (b) CH3COOH (c) Detergents are better cleansing agents than soaps because they do not form insoluble calcium and magnesium salts with hard water, and hence can be used for washing even with hard water. (a) CH3COOH is a c arboxylic acid. Solution : Solution : 15. (b) Write down the structures and names of two isomers of butane (C4H10) Question 9: (a) How is ethanoic acid obtained from ethanol ? Question 3: (d) Name the functional group which always occurs in the middle of a carbon chain. Catenation is the ability of an atom to form bonds with other atoms of the same element. (i) Ethanal (ii) Propanal (iii) Butanal (iv) Pentanal (b) Explain why, graphite can be used as a lubricant but diamond cannot. (c) Explain how coal was formed in the earth. Solution : How do synthetic diamonds differ from natural ones ? (c) Liquid state (c) Write the molecular formula and structure of benzene. (b) Which compound contains a carboxyl group ? C6H12 and C6H10 c an decolourise bromine water since these are unsaturated hydrocabons. (c) Allotrope B: Graphite Solution : Solution : Question 10: (d) Describe how petroleum was formed in the earth. Question 29: To which homologous series does it belong ? (d) Allotrope C: Diamond Question 15: Write the structural formula of propene. CH3COOH, CH3CH2OH Solution : Of what substance is diamond made ? The addition of hydrogen to an unsaturated hydrocarbon to obtain a saturated hydrocarbon is called hydrogenation. (c) Why have detergents replaced soap as a washing agent ? (b) Allotrope Y: Graphite Two organic compounds A and B have the same molecular formula C6H12. (e) Esters Question 38: Write. Litmus test: Some blue litmus solution is added to the organic compound (to be tested). What is the next higher homologue of methanol (CH3OH) ? (d) Ethanoic acid. (a) Ethanoic acid (b) Propanoic acid Question: Write The Electron-dot Structure For The Covalent Compound Ethane, C2H2 . (b) What is the gas B ? Consider the following organic compounds : This is achieved by forming clusters of molecules in which the hydrophobic tails are in the interior of the cluster and the ionic ends are on the surface of the cluster. (b)(i) Diamond is hard whereas graphite is soft. (i) Propanone 2. The electron dot structure of ethane molecule, C 2 H 6 is as follows: 1317 Views. (b) Carbon forms covalent bonds because it can achieve the inert gas electron (ii) Which material ultimately burns without producing a flame ? C2H4 and C3H4 will give addition reactions because these are unsaturated hydrocarbons (Alkene and Alkyne) and unsaturated hydrocarbons give addition reactions. (h) Low; covalent Solution : (b) Write the electron-dot structure of A. Question 66: (f) C2H5OH; Ethanol. Write the structural formula of propene. Methyl alcohol. formaldehyde When the dirty cloth is agitated in soap solution, the oily dirt particles entrapped by soap micelles get dispersed in water and the cloth gets cleaned. Each carbon atom in the diamond crystal is linked to four other carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds. (c) How would you name the following compound ? Solution : A solid element X has four electrons in the outermost shell of its atom. (b) CH3COOH Solution : (c) Uses of esters: Give IUPAC names of the following compounds : (b) Ethanol, CH3CH2OH should be oxidised to prepare CH3COOH. This rigid structure of diamond makes it a very hard substance. Question 40: Solution : Methanol is another member of this homologous series. (iii) Chloropropane – C3H7Cl Calculate the total valence electrons in the molecule. What happens when ethanoic acid reacts with sodium carbonate ? Write the equation of the reaction involved. (a) What happens when propanoic acid is warmed with methanol in the presence of a few drops of Answer. (d) Which compound contains only single bonds ? (b) Why is common salt (sodium chloride) added during the preparation of soap ? Solution : Solution : Name the salt X and gas Y. n-butane and iso-butane. (a) C4H9OH (b) C5HnOH B C4H10O Solution : Question 35: Question 5: C2H4, C3H4, C4H8, C5H12, C5H8, C3H8, C6H6 Solution : Question 4: (b) Red litmus paper turns blue in soap solution and no change occurs on blue litmus paper because soap is basic in nature. Explain with examples. (b) A soap molecule has two parts: the long chain organic part and the ionic part containing the -COO–Na+ group. (a) What happens when ethanoic acid reacts with sodium hydroxide ? (a) Write the formula of the functional group present in carboxylic acids. C5H8; C7H4; C6H6; C5H10; C7 H12; C6H12 (a) How does ethanoic acid react with sodium hydrogencarbonate ? Friedrich Wohler. C3H4 Ethane, which is a organic chemical compound, is found in natural gas. View Answer. While cooking, if the bottom of the vessel is getting blackened on the outside, it means that: https://www.zigya.com/share/U0NFTjEwMTExODA5. Graphite is used as a lubricant in the form of graphite powder or mixed with petroleum jelly or with any lubricant oil to form graphite grease. How is this property helpful to us ? Ethyne (triple bond): C2H2 Also write its formula,. (a) X is coal; Y is wax; Z is natural gas Write the IUPAC names, common names and formulae of the first two members of the homologous series of carboxylic acids. What is the Structure of an Ethane Molecule?. (a) (i) Ammonium State two disadvantages of incomplete combustion. (b) Choose those compounds from the following which can turn blue litmus solution red : (c) State two uses of ethanol (other than as a fuel). (a) Giving their structures, state the number of single bonds, double bonds and triple bonds (if any) in the following compounds : Add 30 ml of 20% sodium hydroxide solution to it. In electron dot structure, the valence shell electrons are represented by crosses or dots. Solution : Solution : (iii) Carboxylic acid group Write the number of covalent bonds in the molecule of propane, C 3 H 8. Write the name of another member of this homologous series. (a). C:4x2=8 H=1x6=6. They are also known as alkanes. Are structural isomers possible for bromopentane ? (a) Alkynes, CnH2n-2 (c) Due to its rigid structure, diamond is the hardest known substance to man. Solution : Question 59: Solution : Solution : (b) Why does carbon form compounds mainly by covalent bonding ? (a) What is meant by catenation ? A neutral organic compound is warmed with some ethanoic acid and a little of cone. (a) What happens when methane (natural gas) burns in air ? Terms in this set (5) Which of the following correctly describes a Lewis dot structure for carbon? (ii) Two consecutive homologues differ by 1 carbon atom and 2 hydrogen atoms in their molecular formulae. Solution : (i) Esters are used in making artificial flavours and essences. Z is ethyl ethanoate (c) Which molecular formula can represent an aldehyde as well as a ketone ? Consider the following organic compounds : (d) CnH2n is the general formula of……………….. Nickel or palladium can be used as catalyst in the hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds. Complete the following equations : (d) The organic acid present in vinegar is……………….. (b) Why are carbon and its compounds used as fuels for most applications ? Lakhmir Singh Chemistry Class 10 Solutions Page No:241. (iii) C3H4 (b) (i) All the members of the homologous series can be represented by the same general formula. Example: Ethene (C2H4) and ethyne (C2H2) Yes, current will flow through the circuit since graphite is a good conductor of electricity. CH3OH The compound B adds on one molecule of hydrogen in the presence of Ni as catalyst to form compound C which gives substitution reactions with chlorine. Carboxylic acid group, -COOH gives brisk effervescence with NaHCO3. What are the raw materials required for making soap in a laboratory (or at home) ? Question 18: Solution : (a)Salt X is sodium ethanoate, CH3COONa; Gas Y is carbon dioxide, CO2 Solution : Solution : Question 28: Y is ethanoic acid (i) Aldehyde group (ii) Alcohol group (iii) Carboxylic acid group (iv) Halo group Ethanol (C2H5OH), Question 3: Question 5: Ethane is formed when hydrogen is added to ethene. (b) 12 pentagons. Using electron-dot diagrams which show only the outermost shell electrons show how a molecule of oxygen O2 is formed from two oxygen atoms. On warming it with methanol in the presence of a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid, a compound Y with a sweet smell is formed. (a) Carbon forms a large number of carbon compounds because carbon atoms can link with one another by means of covalent bonds to form long chains of carbon atoms. Progressing toward more … write common name of acetylene is…………… is much more dangerous to drink than..: electron dot structure for chlorine ( atomic no write the electron dot structure of ethane with two each... Electrons in its outer shell 40: ( a ) the structure ethene. When two H atoms joined together in the hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons that keeps hydrocarbon... 2 hydrogen atoms in graphite are held together by weak Van der Waals forces vaporise heating! Observe that brisk effervescence with sodium hydrogencarbonate to produce carbon dioxide gas is evolved when ethanol is oxidised with potassium. The liver of a soap molecule with the help of a micelle is able to.! 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Belong to the boiling tube ( through a thistle funnel ) to show arrangement... Butane and mention the names and formulae for the formation of an ethane molecule....

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