Fallow Deer (Dama dama) Overview Fallow deer are herd animals, ascribing to the philosophy that many pairs of eyes and ears are the best defense, an approach that makes stealthy stalking a must.Widespread in England and Wales, there are even pockets of fallow as far north as Scotland. Comparatively longer tail than sika. B. They are widespread in England and Wales, but patchy in Scotland, inhabiting mature broadleaf woodland with under-storey, open coniferous woodland, and open agricultural land. Population density and habitat influence both group size and the degree of sexual segregation. Fallow deer are native to Asia and were introduced into the UK by the Normans around the 11th century. NGC index of bag density (blue) and BBS index of abundance (red), from 1995 to 2009. Fallow Deer: Their History, Distribution and Biology. The male has palmate antlers cast in April-June. & Yalden,D.W. Fallow deer have four main variations of coat: Fallow deer often have a distinctive black inverted horseshoe shape on their rumps, and a black stripe on their tails which are the longest of all British deer. Common – tan/fawn, with white spotting on flanks and white rump patch outlined with black horseshoe shaped border. Typically its coat is fawn with white spotting, but white varieties also occur, as do black ones. Harris,S. Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust, Fordingbridge (http://www.gwct.org.uk/ngcmammals). The fallow deer prefers mature broad-leaved or mixed woodlands. Terence Dalton, Lavenham. In others, a temporary rutting stand is maintained to attract sufficient does to herd them into a harem. Fallow deer mate in October and November; females give birth to a single fawn, weighing 4 – 5kg, in June or July. Fallow Deer. It is estimated that there are c. 100,000 Fallow Deer in Great Britain, the vast majority of which are in England. UK wild deer numbers – some estimates are as high as two million – are growing. A Review of British Mammals: Population Estimates and Conservation Status of British Mammals Other than Cetaceans. (2011). Genetic analysis has shown that these Roman fallow deer went extinct in Britain following the collapse of the Roman Empire. (2002). These fallow deer is a Eurasian deer that was a native to most of Europe during the last interglacial. It also occurs across much of Ireland, although a scarcity of records means that this is not apparent from the map. This report should be cited as: Aebischer,N.J., Davey,P.D. There are two species of fallow deer. Introduced by the Normans in the 10th century for hunting they are today found throughout England, often in traditional deer parks but also in the wild, where they have established themselves often as escapees from deer parks. The fallow deer went extinct in Britain during the last Ice Age, and was re-established by the Normans for hunting in the 11th century. & Chapman,N.G. Peak activity is at dawn and dusk with most daytime hours spent ‘lying up’, where they lie down to ruminate between feeding bouts. Their feet are more elongated than Roe deer and are heavier, creating deeper prints. The Fallow deer is the only species in Britain with palmate antlers. Fallow Deer Scientific Name. Today, the herd numbers fewer than 150 and hunting of fallow deer is not permitted. Download species leaflet As a result, deer densities can reach extremely high levels. Facially, their head is more elongated than some species with large angular ears. (4.74 MB), Download distribution & identification poster, Fallow deer: by Donald and Norma Chapman (Revised Edition). Your choice regarding cookies on this site.We use cookies to optimise site functionality and give you the best possible experience. The fallow deer went extinct in Britain during the last Ice Age, and was re-established by the Normans for hunting in the 11th century. After mating, adult does give birth to a single fawn in June or July after a gestation of 229 days. Damage caused by browsing of tree shoots and agricultural crops puts fallow deer in conflict with farmers and foresters and their ability to reach very high densities can result in high local levels of damage. Game and Conservation Benchmarking Survey, GWCT National Gamebag Census & Tracking Mammals Partnership, © Crown Copyright. Fallow deer are a medium to large sized deer. The bag index for England has remained approximately stable between 1976 and 2009., with perhaps a brief initial increase. Within this population there is conspicuous variation … Fallow Deer photo; Fallow Deer Information. Does and their young give short barks when alarmed. The scientific name of this species is Dama dama. Herds will also be found in a number of Scottish districts and are resident on the islands of Mull, Islay and Scarba. In most populations, bucks maintain a traditional, defended rutting stand. There has been a significant increase in the bag index from 1976 onwards following range expansion and increasing abundance (see maps). Bucks groan loudly during the breeding season. J. In Scotland it occurs in isolated pockets, mainly in Perthshire and Stirlingshire, as well as on the islands of Islay, Mull, Lambay and Scarba. (2008). In common with other large species of deer, during conflict, the bucks’ behaviour escalates from groaning and parallel walks to fighting. The hunting for fallow deer during the rut is particularly exciting. Currently, Britain is experiencing what’s called a deer population explosion. Too few sites provided records to evaluate trends before 1976. Throughout this period there was an expansion in range (see maps). Just seven sites reported fallow deer in Scotland between 1961 and 1975. Fallow are currently the most widely distributed deer species found wild in the UK and can now be found in practically all counties of England and Wales. These become full-sized after the deer are three/four years old and can reach up to 0.7m in length. Fallow deer distribution (in green), taken from ‘Britain’s Mammals 2018: The Mammal Society’s Guide to their Population and Conservation Status.’ Diet: Grasses contribute around 60% of the diet, also herbs and boradleaf browse of young trees. & Chapman,N.G. Mammal Society & British Deer Society, Southampton & Fordingbridge. The fallow deer have long been prized as ornamental species and their history is closely linked to that of deer parks. Conversely, many country and forest estates can gain substantial revenue from recreational stalking and/or venison production. © 2020 Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust, Charity registered in England and Wales, 1112023, in Scotland SC038868. England & Wales Best Practice Guides, The Deer Initiative, Chirk (, Harris,S., Morris,P., Wray,S. Coat fades to a general grey colour during the winter, Menil – paler colouration with white spots year-round and a caramel horseshoe shape on rump, Melanistic – black, almost entirely black or chocolate coloured. Whereas Dama is the term used for the genus. They are strong in the water and can swim for long distances. Why Is There A Deer Overpopulation In The UK? Fallow deer are active throughout the 24-hour period but make use of open spaces during the hours of darkness in populations experiencing frequent disturbance. Whether in conflict or used as a resource, fallow deer populations require careful management to maintain health and quality and ensure a sustainable balance with their environment. There are too few bag records of fallow deer to produce an index graph. There are too few bag records of fallow deer to produce a trend starting before 1976. I am lucky to be able to stalk the deer on a 6,000 acre estate in Suffolk, UK. OUR FALLOW DEER: Fallow are not native to Great Britain but have been here a long time. The BBS records are limited to England and show no significant change. Fallow deer are also farmed for their venison and are one of the most important ornamental park species in the UK. Mammal Society, Southampton. Since 1995, data on fallow deer abundance have been collected under the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) organised by the British Trust for Ornithology. Bucks generally live for 8 – 10 years although they can live as long as 16 years.Â. (1995). Fallow Deer. Behaviour depends upon the environment and population density. Fallow deer are a vocal species with vocalizations outside of the rutting season ranging from a short alarm bark emitted by the females to a more relaxed bleating whicker. Fully grown males (bucks) stand at around 0.84 to 0.94m tall at the shoulder and weigh between 46 to 93kg. Fully grown males (bucks) stand at around 0.84 to 0.94m tall at the shoulder and weigh between 46 to 93kg. Fully grown females (does) are 0.73 to 0.91m at the shoulder and weigh between 35 to 56kg. There is a very large population of fallow deer and the estate culls around 250 deer annually. Change in fallow deer bags over time, with 95% confidence limits (see statistical methods): Too few sites provided records to evaluate trends before 1976. UK Mammals: Species Status and Population Trends. The Margam herd currently consists of 300 fallow, 64 red and 34 Père David deer. In lower density areas bucks may simply seek out receptive females. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough (. (2005). National Gamebag Census: Mammal Trends to 2009. Among them, the Fallow Deer, introduced in the 11th century, is by far the most numerous with a population of around 150 – 200,000 individuals. Today in New Zealand fallow deer are the second-most widespread game species after red deer, but they have never reached comparable numbers and distribution because of their slow rate of spread. Here are a couple of the bucks I have taken. The fallow deer herd in the LBL "was brought to LBL by the Hillman Land Company in 1918. Deer Initiative (2008). Originally fallow deer, red deer were introduced alongside the non-native Père David deer. © Copyright 2015 The British Deer SocietyRegistered as a charity in England and Wales 1069663 and Scotland SCO37817. Langbein,J. Sexes freely mix in large herds throughout the year in open, agricultural environments. They subsequently escaped from deer parks and were intentionally relapsed into Hunting Forests. Peak times of activity are at dawn and dusk. As the UK’s deer population explodes, more of the animals are heading into urban areas. A number of guides have been put together to help you identify deer as you take part in this survey. & Kingdon,N.G. (1975). After a brief initial increase after 1976, the UK bag index has remained approximately stable between 1982 and 2009. It’s believed that the Normans introduced them to England for hunting in the 11 th century, from where their populations have spread into Wales and up to southern Scotland. In woodland, for most of the year bucks and does generally remain in separate single-sex herds, grouping together from October to December on traditional rutting stands. The aim of this guide is to provide information on aspects of the ecology and behaviour of fallow deer to aid in the management of this species.‡ Fallow are a naturalised non-indigenous species, having been introduced to Britain in the middle ages. Social Structure: The size of groups and the degree of sexual segregation will depend on population density and habitat. By comparison, an average adult man in Britain is 1.77m high and weighs 79kg. The fallow deer is widespread across England and Wales, including Anglesey. Initially, they were kept in parks as rare exotica but gradually their populations increased and they became an important source of venison for aristocratic tables.  As the fashion for deer parks declined in the 15th century, many parks fell into disrepair and these medieval escapee deer are the foundation of the free-living population in Britain today. Over the last 5 years, the British Deer Society has supported the Arts & Humanities Research Council funded ‘Fallow Deer Project’, which has been examining how, when and why the European fallow deer (Dama dama) spread around the world from its native homeland in the Mediterranean. Estimates of fallow deer abundance (numbers of individuals in the spring) across the UK, from Harris et al. pdf Fallow deer (861 KB) pdf Muntjac deer (837 KB) pdf Red deer (850 KB) pdf Roe deer (808 KB) pdf Sika deer (843 KB) pdf More information about the Deer Distribution Survey (445 KB) Identifying deer. Fallow deer (Dama dama) Both fallow and sika have a white heart-shaped rump; fallow then has a black horseshoe-shaped border, whilst sika has a black border on the top only. The Fallow deer prefers mature broadleaved or mixed woodlands. Within a week, the fawn joins the social group and follows the herd about. The UK’s deer population is believed to be at its highest level for 1,000 years, with some two million deer in our countryside and semi-urban areas. To find out more about the project view the youtube link https://youtu.be/6aagY-9wdtkÂ, pdf Today, they are widespread and the most common deer in England. Taxonomy: Class: Mammalia; Order: Artiodactyla; Family: Cervidae. Species Ecology: Fallow Deer. The latter is an endangered species native to China and are part of a joint breeding programme with ZSL Whipsnade Zoo. It is estimated that there are already 2 million deer in the country. There are too few bag records of fallow deer to evaluate rates of change over time. Mammals of the British Isles: Handbook, 4th edition. It grows quickly and is mobile from a young age. If you continue to use our site without changing your browser settings, we'll assume you are happy to receive cookies. (1991) 224, 367-379 Age assessment of fallow deer (Dama dama): from a scoring scheme based on radiographs of developing permanent molariform teeth W. A. Typically its coat is fawn with white spotting, but white varieties also occur, as do black ones. The rut is from late-September to mid-October. Fallow deer are also farmed for their venison and are one of the most important ornamental park species in the UK. Dabrowa has many regular customers for it’s fallow deer hunts and hind stalking. In areas with very high buck densities a lek (a gathering of males engaging in a competitive display to attract potential mates) may be formed. The Fallow deer is a medium-sized cervid that has been widely translocated within Europe by early civilisations. Upper part of mature male antlers are palmate (broad and flattened) in fallow… Excellent population of fallow deer with an annual shooting quota of 270 head of deer. It was not until the 11th century that fallow deer were reintroduced, this time from the eastern Mediterranean. Further information: Forestry Commission website . Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. The fallow deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family cervidae. & Yalden,D.W. As farmers and conservationists become ever-more concerned at the impact that deer have on crops and wildlife, scientists now argue that an increase in culling levels is essential. Zoo/., Lond. BROWN Department of Anatomy, King's College London, (KQC), Strand, London WC2R 2LS AND NORMA G. CHAPMAN Larkmead, Barton Mills, Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk 1P28 6AA (Accepted 31 July 1990) (With 1 White – white to pale sandy-coloured turning increasingly white with age (this is a true colour and not albino). A combination of mild winters, good food supply and woodland cover means that increased culling is needed to prevent still higher population growth. During the rut, bucks groan tremendously and does with fawns give a short bark when alarmed. Coat fades to a … 59. Good evening and welcome to The British Deer Society, © Copyright 2015 The British Deer Society, Special interest group: Defence Deer Management (Services Branch), BDS Photographer of the Year 2018/19 Winners, BDS Photographer of the Year 2017/18 Winners, BDS Photographer of the Year 2016/17 Winners, Common – tan/fawn, with white spotting on flanks and white rump patch outlined with black horseshoe shaped border. How you can helpDonate – Big or small your donation will make a difference.Membership – Be a member, recommend to a friend, bring the whole family on board. A HUGE thank you for your continuing support. Of the six species of UK deer only two – Red and Roe – are truly native. It is native to Europe and Asia. Fallow deer have four main variations of coat: 1. On top of these, Britain is also home to four non-native deer species. Fallow deer, (Dama dama), medium-sized deer of the family Cervidae (order Artiodactyla) that is frequently kept on estates, in parks, and in zoos.The common fallow deer (Dama dama dama) is native to the eastern Mediterranean; a second, larger, more brightly coloured, short-antlered form, the Mesopotamian fallow deer (D. dama mesopotamica), is native to Iran. Status: UK: Native World: Least Concern (IUCN Red List). The period of increase corresponded to a period of range expansion that slowed after the 1990s (see maps). They prefer to graze grasses although they will take trees and dwarf shrub shoots in autumn and winter. Main variations of coat: 1 mature broad-leaved or mixed woodlands fawn joins social... As a result, deer densities can reach up to 0.7m in length 229 days most daytime spent! Forest estates can gain substantial revenue from recreational stalking and/or venison production and interpretational )! 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